A Brief History of Containers: From the 1970s Till Now

Actual recorded adoption in 2020 was still under 30%, according to a Gartner press release in June of that year. A 2019 Diamanti survey of more than 500 IT organizations revealed that security was users’ top challenge with the technology, followed by infrastructure integration. Sysdig noted what is kubernetes a 100% increase in container density from 2018 to 2019 in its container use survey. Over time, container vendors have addressed security and management issues with tool updates, additions, acquisitions and partnerships, although that doesn’t mean containers are perfect in the 2020s.

History of Kubernetes

VMware doubled down on its commitment to Kubernetes by first acquiring Heptio and then Pivotal Software . The move is intended to offer enterprises the ability to take advantage of cloud-like capabilities of cloud native deployments in their on-premise environments. Linux containers provided the means to create container images based on various Linux distributions, while also incorporating an API for managing the lifecycle of the containers.

It’s easier because are more uniform, but it’s still a tedious process to make sure all the dependencies are there. Docker containers are, in effect, lightweight Linux virtual machines. The difference is that containers share the host OS kernel and memory via container runtime — only apps and files are separated (OS-level virtualization). Containers starts quicker and need far less resources so you can run more on the same machine. Also, Kubernetes enables software teams to write customOperators, a specific process running in a Kubernetes cluster that follows what is known as thecontrol pattern. The same API design principles have been used to define an API to programmatically create, configure, and manage Kubernetes clusters.

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Going hand-in-hand with this elastic cloud model is the use of containers for easier portability and rapid delivery of application workloads. Kubernetes is a highly extensible platform consisting ofnative resource definitionssuch as Pods, Deployments, ConfigMaps, Secrets, and Jobs. Each resource serves a specific purpose and is key to running applications in the cluster.

History of Kubernetes

The Kubernetes Event-Driven Autocaler can improve the scaling behavior of microservices and fast-changing workloads such as functions. KEDA defines its own set of Kubernetes resources to define scaling behavior and can be considered an ‘HPA v3’ (as the HPA resource is already at ‘v2’). Thus, from an organizational and architectural perspective, there are several reasons why developers should not program the network with Ingress resources. It is essential to consider the options with an overall organizational view to ensure a manageable and long-term viable approach to network configuration and management.

The scheduler tracks resource use on each node to ensure that workload is not scheduled in excess of available resources. For this purpose, the scheduler must know the resource requirements, resource availability, and other user-provided constraints or policy directives such as quality-of-service, affinity vs. anti-affinity requirements, and data locality. The scheduler’s role is to match resource «supply» to workload «demand». Originally designed by Google, the project is now maintained by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation.

Who Made Kubernetes And Why Is It Popular?

For example, kubelet is the agent that runs a node, which is like a group leader who reports to the control plane . Etcd is the persistent database for the control plane itself, the node controller and pod scheduler are also in the control plane, and so on. In State of Cloud Native Development Report, 33% developers report that they can release production code daily and 31% weekly. Dev team can now stay competitive since they can roll out new features faster than other companies. In one of the bigger project, we had a team about 30 people divided into system analysts, web devs and service devs. Then the client decided to add a new function branch in the software.

And today, of course, observability is a sine qua non for managing complex applications. It’s something that developers, IT engineers, and DevOps teams can’t live without. In other words, Kálmán was helping to pioneer new concepts in the fields of signal processing and system theory.

But you may be surprised to learn that – despite its close association with modern applications – observability as a concept was born more than a half-century ago. Its origins stretch all the way back to the late 1950s, long before anyone was talking about microservices and the cloud. Rani has worked in enterprise software companies more than 25 years, spanning project management, product management and marketing, including a decade as VP of marketing for innovative startups in the cyber-security and cloud arenas. Previously Rani was also a management consultant in the London office of Booz & Co. Rani is an avid wine geek, and a slightly less avid painter and electronic music composer.

  • Soon after, dotCloud become Docker, Inc., which in addition to contributing to the Docker container technology, began to build its own management platform.
  • IBM stayed in the 1970s, at least culturally, but its concept didn’t.
  • Kubernetes provides a Secret resource to specify static secrets such as API keys, passwords, etc.
  • The pay-per-use model combined with the ability to rapidly provision and decommission resources make it an ideal platform for hosting a Kubernetes cluster requiring varying node count to accommodate changing workloads.
  • First it’s a Container Management Platform, which means it manages bundled applications that have all their dependencies.

The pay-per-use model combined with the ability to rapidly provision and decommission resources make it an ideal platform for hosting a Kubernetes cluster requiring varying node count to accommodate changing workloads. These interact with Custom Resources, and allow for a true declarative API that allows for the lifecycle management of Custom Resource that is aligned with the way that Kubernetes itself is designed. The combination of Custom Resources and Custom Controllers are often referred to as an Operator. The key use case for Operators are to capture the aim of a human operator who is managing a service or set of services and to implement them using automation, and with a declarative API supporting this automation. Human operators who look after specific applications and services have deep knowledge of how the system ought to behave, how to deploy it, and how to react if there are problems. Examples of problems solved by Operators include taking and restoring backups of that application’s state, and handling upgrades of the application code alongside related changes such as database schemas or extra configuration settings.


To handle varying capacity demand, we need some spare capacity while the HPA adds more Pods. Kubernetes provides an Ingress resource to specify how to route HTTP traffic into workloads. As Tim Hockin (Kubernetes co-founder) acknowledges, there is a lot wrong with the Ingress resource. The primary problem is that it only lets us manage the very basics of HTTP traffic routing. Allowing developers to use Ingress resources will be a headache for infrastructure and Site Reliability Engineering teams that need to interconnect an extensive infrastructure and make it run reliably. The Ingress resource is too simple, and developers should not use it to configure networking.

History of Kubernetes

Deploy and run apps consistently across on-premises, edge computing and public cloud environments from any cloud vendor, using a common set of cloud services including toolchains, databases and AI. With Red Hat OpenShift on IBM Cloud, OpenShift developers have a fast and secure way to containerize and deploy enterprise workloads in Kubernetes clusters. Enter Istio, an open source service mesh layer for Kubernetes clusters. To each Kubernetes cluster, Istio adds a sidecar container — essentially invisible to the programmer and the administrator — that configures, monitors, and manages interactions between the other containers. The clusters are made up ofnodes, each of which represents a single compute host . In fact, if you’ve enthusiastically adopted Docker and are creating large-scale Docker-based container deployments, Kubernetes orchestration is a logical next step for managing these workloads.

Read the latest news for Kubernetes and the containers space in general, and get technical how-tos hot off the presses. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Examples of OIDC token usage to integrate with external systems are AWS IAM roles for service accounts and Hashicorp Vault Kubernetes auth.

The History of GitOps

Containers are more easily portable across desktop, data center, and cloud environments. And they’re an excellent fit for Agile and DevOps development practices. Kubernetes — also known as “k8s” or “kube” — is a container orchestration platform for scheduling and automating the deployment, management, and scaling of containerized applications. The first and most obvious challenge is the borderline overwhelming complexity. The CNCF Landscape illustrates this problem nicely; once you have an application running in Kubernetes, you need to dramatically uplift your telemetry story. The old days of “log into the Linux box and check what it’s doing” don’t work when the container stopped existing 20 minutes before you knew there was a problem.

For this trip, step into my DeLorean time machine, and let’s journey to 1979, when the concept of containers first emerged. When we first published this blog post in 2017, the technology landscape for containers was quite different than it is today. Over the past two years, we have seen significant changes take place that affected, and continue to affect how Containers are adopted. As we enter the new decade, we want to recap the changes and developments that we saw and offer our view of where we believe Containers are heading to in 2020. «Understanding Kubernetes» and «understanding cloud-native architecture» has become increasingly important. Since 2019, cloud-native technologies have been extensively used on a large scale.

Originally owned by Google, Kubernetes was donated to the Cloud Native Computing Foundation in 2014 as a seed technology. Kubernetes brings an extraordinary level of reliability and scalability to modern systems, and thus has become a synonym for success. Photo by Kelvin Han on UnsplashThe next problem is that it’s difficult to run different apps on a same server. To understand what exactly Kubernetes does and why it’s so popular for modern system operations, we’ll have to take a quick look of the history. It is remarkable to me to return to Portland and OSCON to stand on stage with members of the Kubernetes community and accept this award for Most Impactful Open Source Project.

Linux is still ubiquitous, and part of our stack, but few developers care much about it because we have since added a few abstractions on top. It’s the same that will happen to the traditional Kubernetes we know today. Apart from the above settings, max-disk-mb and max-look-back can be tweaked according to input data and memory constraints. Provides timeline displays that show rollouts of related resources https://globalcloudteam.com/ in updates to Deployments, ReplicaSets, and StatefulSets. Research reveals scattered efforts by programmers and IT engineers to apply the concept of observability to their work in the late 1990s, when the term was being used at Sun Microsystems, for example. It is yet to be seen if multicloud will be a necessary next-level layer of abstraction, for either resilience or competitive flexibility reasons.

After the incident, pleased with their progress, the team sat together and made a list of these principles by which they operated their Kubernetes system. Many of these practices were introduced to the team at Weaveworks by employees who brought with them these learnings of how to build resilient systems using declarative principles. The history of GitOps closely follows that of the container and Kubernetes revolution of the past few years. In this post, we look at all the key milestones in the journey of GitOps as it went from a fledgling idea to the global technology movement it has become today. If you need help, you can connect with other Kubernetes users and the Kubernetes authors, attend community events, and watch video presentations from around the web.

A Brief History of Containers

This approach is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to Virtual Machines when it comes to application portability. Google worked with the Linux Foundation to form the Cloud Native Computing Foundation and offer Kubernetes as a seed technology. In February 2016, the Helm package manager for Kubernetes was released.

Reasons for Kubernetes’ Popularity

The concept of «immutable infrastructure» reflects that the infrastructure on which applications are running is evolving to the cloud. Before evolution, the conventional application infrastructure is changeable in most cases. Therefore, in such cases, the infrastructure is constantly adjusted and modified.


In other words, the infrastructure in the cloud era is like a «draft animal» that may be replaced at any time, whereas the conventional infrastructure is a unique «pet» that can never be replaced but requires careful care. This is exactly the strength of immutable infrastructure in the cloud era. Currently, cloud-native technologies are implemented based on «container design patterns» proposed by Google, which will be discussed in Kubernetes articles. In more detail, cloud-native provides users with the best practice of exploiting the capabilities and value of cloud in a user-friendly, agile, scalable, and replicable way. From 2004 through 2007, Google applied container technologies such as control groups throughout the enterprise.

The rapid evolution of containers over the past two decades has changed the dynamic of modern IT infrastructure — and it began before Docker’s debut in 2013. Flexible, resilient, secure IT for your Hybrid Cloud Containers are part of an hybrid cloud strategy lets you build and manage workloads from anywhere. Every current and aspiring cloud provider today supports Kubernetes on its platform, and having at least a theoretical exodus path from your current provider is no small thing, even if you never end up using it.

Linux distributions further included the necessary client tools for interacting with the API, bundled features to take snapshots, and support for migrating container instances from one container host to another. When containers and Docker are available, people need a way to manage these containers conveniently, quickly, and gracefully. After Google and Red Hat released Kubernetes, the project grew dramatically. The project has its roots in an internal project at Google called Borg.

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